All the systems described in previous chapters must be water vapour resistant and insulated in order to prevent condensation (cooling). Two of the most important manufacturers in this field are Armaflex and Kaimann.
Vapour resistant insulation comprises of closed cell structures which limit air permeability and, consequently, condensation. There are several different quality levels of insulation which are used for various purposes (AC, ITS, ...).
Should insulation be based on warm or hot water, glass or stone wool in an Alu shield must be used. This type of insulation is used where pipelines are exposed to damage and external weather influences.